Bottlenecks in the Covid Vaccine Supply Chains

woman holding test tube

If you are interested in how complicated the supply chain of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna mRNA vaccines are, this article by Jonas Neubert is what you might want to read. It is gives a quite in-depth overview of the manufacturing process and its bottlenecks.

One of the major problems seems to be the coating of mRNA in liquid nanoparticles (LNP). Producing these LNPs is one part, but apparently actually mixing them together with the mRNA is even harder.

One thing … more

Effects of Protestantism and Catholicism in Modern Germany

There is a very interesting episode of freakonomics on the protestant work ethic. In it, they claim that even today Protestants work longer hours than Catholics do. Germany doesn’t seem to be an especially religious country to me. While the majority is Christian on paper, hardly more then ten percent of people actually go to church regularly.

However: the protestant work ethic still seems to be real according to freakonomics:

SPENKUCH: I find three things. One: yes, Protestantism increases